, Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel was born in 1883 to Eugénie Jeanne Devolle Chanel, known as Jeanne, a laundrywoman in the charity hospital run by the Sisters of Providence (a poorhouse) in Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France. ", She died on Sunday, 10 January 1971, at the Hotel Ritz, where she had resided for more than 30 years. a workshop for costume jewelry--that altogether employed 3,500 workers. Place of Birth: Saumur, Pays de la Loire, France. :xix In late-1943 or early-1944, Chanel and her SS superior, Schellenberg, who had a weakness for unconventional schemes, devised a plan to get Britain to consider a separate peace to be negotiated by the SS. Profession: businessperson, artist, dressmaker, choreographer, fashion designer.  Chanel and Dincklage were to report to Schellenberg at the RSHA, with a ludicrous plan that Chanel had proposed to Dincklage: she, Coco Chanel, was to meet Churchill and persuade him to negotiate with the Germans. Coco Chanel was born in Saumur, Maine-et … This was revolutionary in an era when jewellery was strictly categorized into either fine or costume jewellery. She announced her final words to her maid which were: "You see, this is how you die." By Daisy Dumas Updated: 03:21 EST, 2 August 2011 Chanel dominated the Paris fashion world in the nineteen-twenties and at the height of her career was running four business enterprises--a fashion house, a textile business, perfume laboratories and Its heroine and her story had resonated for Chanel since her youth. In 1943, Chanel travelled to the RSHA in Berlin—the "lion's den"—with her liaison and "old friend", the German Embassy in Paris press attaché Baron Hans Günther von Dincklage, a former Prussian Army officer and attorney general, who was also known as "Sparrow" among his friends and colleagues. Balsan's wealth allowed the cultivation of a social set that reveled in partying and the gratification of human appetites, with all the implied accompanying decadence. Vaughan writes that some claim that Churchill instructed Duff Cooper, British ambassador to the French provisional government, to protect Chanel. For a higher level of comfort, the skirt had a grosgrain stay around the waist, instead of a belt. Clearly it wasn't the best period to have a love story with a German, even if Baron von Dincklage was English by his mother and she (Chanel) knew him before the War.. After one year of operation, the business proved to be so lucrative that in 1916 Chanel was able to reimburse Capel's original investment. She had significant relationships with the poet Pierre Reverdy and the illustrator and designer Paul Iribe. The greatest fashion designer of the 20th century, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel, died suddenly in her suite at the swish Hotel Ritz in Paris half a century ago this week. He shared with her an expressed homophobia. Coco Chanel died on January 10, 1971, at her apartment in the Hotel Ritz. Maison de Chanel issued a statement, portions of which were published by several media outlets. ":174 Ultimately, the mission was a failure for the Germans: British intelligence files reveal that the plan collapsed after Lombardi, on arrival in Madrid, proceeded to denounce Chanel and others to the British Embassy as Nazi spies. One plan in late 1943 was for her to carry an SS peace overture to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to end the war. When the Nazi occupation of France began, Chanel decided to close her store, claiming a patriotic motivation behind such decision. Called simply "Chanel No. She never married, having once said “I never wanted to weigh more heavily on a … She so much admired it that she wished to reproduce it in "exquisite, expensive, delicate glass". Coco went with the nuns and she never got adopted, so she left the orphanage when she was 18 to work at a local tailor shop. The horse culture and penchant for hunting so passionately pursued by the elites, especially the British, fired Chanel's imagination. Chanel accepted the offer. They had a romantic interlude, and maintained a close association for many years afterward. Birth Date August 4, 1821 Death Date February 27, 1892 Place of Birth Anchay, France Place of Death ... fashion designer Coco Chanel created timeless designs that are still popular today. , Vaughan establishes that Chanel committed herself to the German cause as early as 1941 and worked for General Walter Schellenberg, chief of the German intelligence agency Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service; SD) and the military intelligence spy network Abwehr (Counterintelligence) at the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA) in Berlin. She was born on August 19, 1883. She is the only fashion designer listed on Time magazine's list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. It would be very hard for a man to live with me, unless he’s terribly strong. She died on January 10, 1971 in Paris, France. From her excursions on water with the yachting world, she appropriated the clothing associated with nautical pursuits: the horizontal striped shirt, bell-bottom pants, crewneck sweaters, and espadrille shoes—all traditionally worn by sailors and fishermen. At war's end, Amiot returned "Parfums Chanel" to the hands of the Wertheimers. That tuft of curly black hair, the attribute of bull-calves, falls over her brow all the way to the eyelids and dances with every maneuver of her head. Historically, identifiable exposure to the sun had been the mark of laborers doomed to a life of unremitting, unsheltered toil. :124–25 In Biarritz Chanel met an expatriate aristocrat, the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia. Chanel's youth and physical charms impressed those for whom she auditioned, but her singing voice was marginal and she failed to find stage work. :328, Her involvement with Iribe was a deep one until his sudden death in 1935. :186–87, The extent of Churchill's intervention for Chanel after the war became a subject of gossip and speculation. In addition, Pierre Wertheimer agreed to an unusual stipulation proposed by Chanel herself. I only like fake jewellery ... because it's provocative.  Chanel herself designed her famed interlocked-CC monogram, which has been in use since the 1920s.  Ultimately, the Wertheimers and Chanel came to a mutual accommodation, renegotiating the original 1924 contract. , What is certain is that she had a relationship with a German aristocrat during the War. Coco Chanel, 1928 Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (19 August 1883 – 10 January 1971) was a French fashion designer. She invited them to her new home, Bel Respiro, in the Paris suburb of Garches, until they could find a suitable residence. The costumes she designed were mocked and critically lambasted: "Wrapped in bandages the actors looked like ambulant mummies or victims of some terrible accident. They frequently strolled together through central Paris. :49 Obliged to find employment, she took work at the Grande Grille, where as a donneuse d'eau she was one whose job was to dispense glasses of the purportedly curative mineral water for which Vichy was renowned. 5, has become an iconic product. This season the name Chanel is on the lips of every buyer. ", "The 1944 Chanel-Muggeridge Interview, Chanel's War", "Biography claims Coco Chanel was a Nazi spy", "Top 10 amazing facts you didn't know about Coco Chanel", "On This Day: Chanel, the Couturier, Dead in Paris", "Introduction to 20th Century Fashion, V&A", "Fashion design for Suzanne Orlandi, Été 1901, by Jeanne Paquin", "Short History of The Famous Chanel 2.55 Bag", "Festival de Cannes: Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky", Interactive timeline of couture houses and couturier biographies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coco_Chanel&oldid=1000744127, Articles with failed verification from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 14:10. , Having learned to sew during her six years at Aubazine, Chanel found employment as a seamstress.  In 2005, the Chanel firm released an exact replica of the original 1955 bag to commemorate the 50th anniversary of its creation. Chanel wanted to make sure women could do all of these things while wearing her suit, without accidentally exposing parts of their body they wanted covered. :14 She was Jeanne's second child with Albert Chanel; the first, Julia, had been born less than a year earlier. En route to California from New York, traveling in a white train carriage luxuriously outfitted for her use, Chanel was interviewed by Colliers magazine in 1932. I have seen young women ruined by these awful queers: drugs, divorce, scandal. She shared with many of her circle a conviction that Jews were a threat to Europe because of the Bolshevik government in the Soviet Union. Her inspirations were global, often inspired by design traditions of the Orient and Egypt.  During the summer, Chanel discovered that the Stravinsky family sought a place to live, having left the Soviet Union after the war. Signalled as suspect in the file" (Pseudonyme: Westminster. The boyish look and the short skirts of the 1920s flapper seemed to disappear overnight. Birth date: August 19, 1883* Death Date: January 10, 1971. When interrogated by British intelligence at war's end, Schellenberg maintained that Chanel was "a person who knew Churchill sufficiently to undertake political negotiations with him". The writer Colette, who moved in the same social circles as Chanel, provided a whimsical description of Chanel at work in her atelier, which appeared in Prisons et Paradis (1932): If every human face bears a resemblance to some animal, then Mademoiselle Chanel is a small black bull. In addition to Chanel philosophy, the show featured many models parading in the popular fashions Chanel designed through her long career. She cut the jackets on the straight grain, without adding bust darts. In 1931, while in Monte Carlo Chanel became acquainted with Samuel Goldwyn. It was perhaps her perfume more than her fashions that made the name Chanel famous around the world. Chanel was convinced that women would ultimately rebel against the aesthetic favored by the male couturiers, what she called "illogical" design: the "waist cinchers, padded bras, heavy skirts, and stiffened jackets". She said that it was not a time for fashion; as a result of her action, 4,000 female employees lost their jobs. Measurements were taken of a customer in a standing position with arms folded at shoulder height. Coco's death occurred as she was working on her collection to be presented in the spring fashion shows this month. Placement in the orphanage may have contributed to Chanel's future career, as it was where she learned to sew. Her life story was turned into a musical, "Coco," which ran on Broadway last year starring Katherine Hepburn in her first singing and dancing role. During this time, she fled to Switzerland to avoid criminal charges for her collaborations as a Nazi spy. A prolific fashion creator, Chanel extended her influence beyond couture clothing, realizing her design aesthetic in jewellery, handbags, and fragrance. Soon after, feeling ill, she went to bed early.  As the 1930s progressed, Chanel's place on the throne of haute couture was threatened. Working as a spy, Chanel was directly involved in a plan for the Third Reich to take control of Madrid. 5 had two probable origins, both attributable to her association with Capel.  They desired outfits that did not give way easily and could be put on without the help of servants. Some informers had numbers without being aware of it." Her earnings were projected at $25 million a year, making her at the time one of the richest women in the world. Chanel visited Madrid in 1943 to convince the British ambassador to Spain, Sir Samuel Hoare, a friend of Winston Churchill, about a possible German surrender once the war was leaning towards an Allied victory. :5, Later in life, Chanel would retell the story of her childhood somewhat differently; she would often include more glamorous accounts, which were generally untrue. The nuns taught Coco everything she … The prince allegedly was smitten with Chanel and pursued her in spite of her involvement with the Duke of Westminster. Chanel denied all the accusations. In the obituary of one of Capel's daughters, he was described as "an intellectual, politician, tycoon, polo-player and the dashing lover and sponsor of the fas… This ensemble, worn with low-heeled shoes, became the casual look in expensive women's wear. Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel was born in 1883 in Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France. Chanel's millinery career bloomed once theatre actress Gabrielle Dorziat wore her hats in Fernand Nozière's play Bel Ami in 1912. , In 1918, Chanel purchased the building at 31 rue Cambon, in one of the most fashionable districts of Paris. :150, During the period directly following the end of World War II, the business world watched with interest and some apprehension the ongoing legal wrestle for control of Parfums Chanel. Renoir was favorably impressed by Visconti and brought him in to work on his next film project.:306. :169 For this mission, codenamed Operation Modellhut, they also recruited Vera Bate Lombardi. She became a licensed milliner in 1910 and opened a boutique at 21 rue Cambon, Paris, named Chanel Modes. The collection, executed exclusively in diamonds and platinum, was exhibited for public viewing and drew a large audience; some 3,000 attendees were recorded in a one-month period. PARIS, Jan. 10--Gabrielle (Coco) Chanel, one of the greatest couturiers of the 20th century, died tonight in her apartment at the Ritz Hotel. He served as diplomat in Paris and was former Prussian Army officer and Attorney General who had been an operative in military intelligence since 1920,:57 who eased her arrangements at the Ritz. She had gone for a long drive the afternoon of Saturday, 9 January. , In 1906, Chanel worked in the spa resort town of Vichy. Born on August 19 #11. Wealthy clients who did not wish to display their costly jewellery in public could wear Chanel creations to impress others. Half a century since her death, FRANCE 24’s Clovis Casali and Armelle Caux look back at her career and legacy. Jeanne was too unwell to attend the registration, and Albert was registered as "travelling". The woman whose designs still shape what we wear today, died at 9:00 pm on January 10, 1971. 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