The duchy was created in 1561 after the defeat of the Livonian Order during the Livonian War, when the Master of Livonian Order sought after the protection of the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. WHKMLA : History of Courland, 1641-1795 In 1641, JACOB KETTLER inherited the Duchy of Courland. On the west it is bordered by the Baltic Sea, and on the south by Lithuania. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Courland region of Latvia that existed from 28 November 1561 to 28 March 1795 and from 3 March to 18 November 1918, with Jelgava serving as its capital. Duchy of Courland. It existed from 1228 to the 1560s, when it was dismembered during the Livonian Wars. Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. Wilhelmine is mainly known for her relationship with Klemens Metternich, statesman of the Austrian Empire. As Russian rule in the rest of what is now Latvia began collapsing at the end of World War I, Baltic Germans began a process of forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918, competing with ethnic Latvians' moves toward independence. The promise of gain induced him to authorize wealthy Jews to settle there. During World War I, German Armies had occupied the Courland Governorate of Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. English: The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in 1740. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Under his rule, the duchy was brought to its greatest peak in wealth and engaged in colonization. When Gotthard Kettler died in 1587, his sons, Friedrichand Wilhelm, became the dukes of Courland. Although it existed for just a short period – till 1582 – it quickly turned into a modern European state. The Soviet Army occupied Latvia in conformity with the terms of 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 17 June 1940. Its Duke, Jacob Kettler, turned the Duchy of Courland into a colonial superpower. [2], On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence. They all flow northwestward and discharge into the Baltic Sea. When combined with Semigallia and Selonia, Courland's northeastern boundary is the river Daugava, which separates it from the regions of Latgale and Vidzeme. 64,500 in 1897); Bauska (6,543); Jaunjelgava (Friedrichstadt) (5,223); Kuldīga (Goldingen) (9,733); Grobiņa (1,489); Aizpute (Hasenpoth) (3,338); Ilūkste (Illuxt) (2,340); Talsi (Talsen) (6,215); Tukums (Tuckum) (7542); and Ventspils (Windau) (7,132). Flax spinning took place mostly as a domestic industry. The majority of them never returned to Germany (Haupt, 1997). Even in France, his military exploits have long slid into irrelevance. Territory expansion became the new buzzword. At this time the group consisted of the remnants of some 31 divisions. Resonance. They divided the Duchy into two parts in 1596. Duchy of Courland (1918) During WWI ,Germany planed a protectorate over the Baltic between 1917 (Russia's withdrawal from the war) and 1918 (German defeat).This project was never realised (was not accepted by German kaiser). The region of Piltene, owned by the head of the Church of Courland, was regarded as the bishop's private property. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , the dukes operated autonomously. In 1944 the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus. Gotthard von Kettler (1517- 1587), the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1562. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland as they were formerly held by the same duke. In 1655 the Swedish army entered the territory of the Duchy and the Northern Wars (1655–1660) began. 75% of the population belonged to the prevailing denomination, Lutheranism; the rest belonged to the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. Courland 1561-1641. He was a very energetic man, built up a navy of 61 ships and pursued a colonial policy; Courlanders built FORT JAKOB on the Gambia river in West Africa (1651) and another colony on TOBAGO in 1652, attempting to get a share in the African slave trade. The new policy was stated in a telegram from the German Foreign Office to the military administration of the Baltic: The government of the Reich is unanimous in respect of the fundamental change in our policy towards the Baltic countries, namely that in the first instance policy is to be made with the Baltic peoples. BM01147Am.jpg 300 × 480; 37 KB. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Courland became part of independent Latvia once more and it remains so to this day. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia: | | | Duchy of Courland and Semigallia | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia had been created in 1561 by Gotthard Kettler, last master of the Livonian Order, and had been ruled by his descendants until the dynasty died out in 1737. is made up of lakes. Although the German Reichstag supported national self-determinationfor the Baltic peoples, the G… The Establishment of the Duchy of Courland:. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia had been created in 1561 by Gotthard Kettler, last master of the Livonian Order, and had been ruled by his descendants until the dynasty died out in 1737. Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Baltsball, Livonian Orderball and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.Courland was the smallest colonial power, as he had land in what is now The Gambia and Guyana. Liepāja and Jelgava operated as the principal industrial centres, with ironworks, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works. 35,011 in 1897); Liepāja (Libau) (pop. Courland District (which included parts of Semigallia) was made one of three districts of the region, which also came to be known as Ober Ost. It was a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1562 to 1569 and from 1569 to 1726 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Courland remained part of the Latvian SSR within the Soviet Union following World War II. The Duchy of Courland became a focus of strategic interest for both Sweden and … Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. By January 1919, much of Courland had been overrun by the Bolsheviks' Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic but the provisional government with the aid of German forces pushed back and took back Courland by April. The Duchy was one of the smallest European nations to colonize overseas territories, establishing short-lived outposts on the Caribbean islands of Tobago and Trinidad and at the mouth of the Gambia River in Africa on what was then known as James Island. Fruit grew well. Bm03115abm.jpg 640 × 503; 125 KB. He was a very energetic man, built up a navy of 61 ships and pursued a colonial policy; Courlanders built FORT JAKOB on the Gambia river in West Africa (1651) and another colony on TOBAGO in 1652, attempting to get a share in the African slave trade. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. During World War I, the German Army had occupied the Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. In 1641, JACOB KETTLER inherited the Duchy of Courland. Although it existed for just a short period – till 1582 – it quickly turned into a modern European state. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 3 March 1918, Russia's new Bolshevik government formally relinquished control of Courland to Germany. Russian Governors of Courland AD 1795 - 1915. With large territories coming under the Ober Ost's administration as a result of military successes on the Eastern Front, General Erich Ludendorff was charged with managing the large area now under its jurisdiction. The duchy's title goes to the Russian emperor. By this means, some occupants bought their farms, but the great mass of the population remained landless, and lived as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the social scale. Flag of the United Baltic Duchy. BM01084Am.jpg 304 × 480; 35 KB. The Jelgava plain divides Courland into two parts, the western side, which is fertile and densely inhabited, except in the north, and the eastern side, less fertile and thinly inhabited. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, became the first duke of Courland. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region.It existed from 1562 through 1795. This article is about the region of Courland, also known as Curland, Kurland and Kurzeme. However, all this time Duchy of Courland was the point of interest for both Sweden and Poland. [2], Kaiser Wilhelm recognised the creation of Courland, as a German vassal by writing to Courland's Landesrat on March 8, 1918 (in German):[citation needed]. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. He accepted baptism, and became a vassal of the pope. Excellent breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs were kept. The Swedish army held Duke Jacob captive from 1658 to 1660. Following Russia's Great Retreat of 1915, Courland came under control of the German Army's Ober Ost commander in the person of Paul von Hindenburg, a Prussian military hero. In the 18th century Russia acquired great influence over the Duchy. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. The former Bishopric of Courland was directly incorporated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as the District of Pilten of the Wenden and later Inflanty Voivodeship. Jacob Kettler (German: Jakob von Kettler; 28 October 1610 1 January 1682) was a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1641 1682). Iron and limestone were the chief minerals; a little amber was found on the coast. He took the name of Jacob II, after the Duk… The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. The territory is merged with that of the Russian Kurzeme and Zemgale regions of Livonia. Wilhelm II. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. It was a vassal state of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later of Poland-Lithuania.It became independent in 1791, but was annexed by Russian Empire in 1795 during Third Partition of Poland.. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}56°56′54″N 24°05′09″E / 56.94833°N 24.08583°E / 56.94833; 24.08583, Map of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in Europe in 1918, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duchy_of_Courland_and_Semigallia_(1918)&oldid=1002163302, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories disestablished in 1918, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Duchy of Courland was absorbed on September 22, 1918 by the, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:13. In ancient times the Curonians, a pagan tribe, inhabited Courland. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, by the Union of Lublin, became a protectorate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth(1569-1795). Duchies of Courland and Semigallia (recognized by Poland- Lithuania on 17 Apr 1598). The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. Maria Amalia of Courland (387 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article Princess Maria Anna Amalia of Courland (12 June 1653 – 16 June 1711) was a landgravine of Hesse-Kassel through her marriage on 21 May 1673 to her first Partition became nominal from 14 May 1616 when Duke of Semigallia Friedrich became also regent of Duchy of Courland. These provinces corresponded to Latvia's four traditional regions plus Riga. This exile is due to the inhospitable nature of the territory we claim. Courland Governorate, Governorate of Livonia, Governorate of Estonia of Russian Empire before the 1917 February Revolution. Owing to its numerous lakes and marshes, Courland has a damp, often foggy, and changeable climate; its winters are severe. However, some 200,000 German troops held out in Courland. BM01142Am.jpg 307 × 480; 38 KB. During this period both colonies were taken by Dutch colonists, the merchant fleet and factories were destroyed. Following the February Revolution in Russia, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia was created on 12 April 1917 (30 March Old Style) from the former Russian Governorate of Estonia and northern Governorate of Livonia. Polski: Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii w 1740 roku. With their backs to the Baltic Sea, they remained trapped in what became known as the Courland Pocket, blockaded by the Red Army and by the Red Baltic Fleet. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Courland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918 the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia.[2]. There was a small but vigorous Jewish population. Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. Dorothea (1793–1862), youngest daughter of last Duke, wife of Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord (1787–1872), nephew of the French statesman Talleyrand, becoming Talleyrand's devoted attendant, political aide, and possible lover. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was proclaimed on 8 March 1918 by one such Landesrat composed of Baltic Germans, who offered the crown of the Duchy to Kaiser Wilhelm II. Buy Duchy of Courland and Semigallia by (ISBN: 9786130686963) from Amazon's Book Store. The remainder of Courland is part of the planning regions of Riga and Semigallia (Zemgale). The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was the longest-surviving state in the territory of Latvia during the Early Modern age. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. (at1) Although nominally a vassal state, the dukes operated autonomously*… The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. In 1655 Swedish army entered territory of Duchy and the Swedish - Polish war (1655-1660) begun. On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland. In 1935, Courland had an area of 13,210 square kilometres (5,099 sq mi) and a population of 292,659 making it the least populous of the provinces.[4]. As Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. Bm02211am.jpg 314 × 480; 64 KB. Answer of Kaiser Wilchelm to Courlands Land Council to decision about creation of Duchy of Courland in March 8. The towns and cities are designated by their German names since the nobility and the Duke were of German heritage. It was engaged in manufacturing, producing metal, arms, ships and trading with the whole world. The territories that comprised the Livonian Confederation in the Baltic region were militarily weak and losing appeal. The Duchy of Courland was absorbed on September 22, 1918, by the United Baltic Duchy. (The Russian authorities of the Courland Governorate were exiled to Tartu never to return.) The duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, included this area as well as Semigallia (Zemgale), a region located east of Courland proper. After the October Revolution, the elected Estonian Provincial Assembly declare… The United Baltic Duchy was nominally recognized as a sovereign state[citation needed] by the Kaiser only on September 22, 1918, half a year after Soviet Russia had formally relinquished all authority over its former Imperial Baltic provinces to the German Empire in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. To the north, Courland's coast lies along the Gulf of Riga. Courland (/ˈkʊərlənd/; Latvian: Kurzeme; Livonian: Kurāmō; German and Scandinavian languages: Kurland; Latin: Curonia/Couronia; Russian: Курляндия; Lithuanian: Kuršas; Polish: Kurlandia) is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. Throughout the Latvian War of Independence, much of Courland remained a German stronghold. The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. After the last of the ducal line into which she had married died in 1737, she arranged for the Duchy to be given to her lover, Ernst Johann von Biron instead. The area comprises 27,286 km² (10,535 sq.mi. In 1609 he married Princess Sophie of Prussia-Brandenburg. On March 15 Wilhelm II proclaimed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia a "free and sovereign state", but did not assume the title of the Duke of Courland. Although the German Reichstag supported national self-determination for the Baltic peoples, the German High Command continued the policy of attaching the Baltic to the Reich by relying on Baltic Germans. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland as they were formerly held by the same duke. On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence and on 7 December 1918, the German military handed over authority to the pro-German Latvian Provisional Government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis. Pro-German forces were trying to reanimate a state-like body closely related to the German Empire. [2], After the Russian Revolution, German troops started advancing from Courland, and by the end of February 1918 the territories of the former Russian Governorate of Livonia and Autonomous Governorate of Estonia that had declared independence were also occupied and fell under the German military administration. Bm05169am.jpg 388 × 480; 74 KB. Hitler believed them necessary to protect Kriegsmarine submarine bases along the Baltic coast. The Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, subdued the Curonians and converted them to Christianity in the first quarter of the 13th century. Until 1737 the head of the Duchy of Courland was the former master of the Livonian Order, G. Kettler, and his descendants; in 1737, Biron [the favorite of Empress Anne of Russia] took over. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. Courland, also spelled Kurland, Latvian Kurzeme, region on the Baltic seacoast, located south of the Western Dvina River and named after its inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). Wilhelm II's unwillingness to become the Duke of Courland, coupled with the Reichstag's critique of initiatives to annex the occupied territories, could have dispirited the Baltic … The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region.It existed from 1562 through 1795. They found a man claiming to be a distant relative of the Kettler family that ruled Courland for decades, and being as he was the only relative found alive after Doomsday, he was crowned the Duke of Courland on August 6th, 1985. The Duchy of Courland is a nation by the definition of the Montevideo Conventions. Courland's elevation never rises more than 213 m (700 ft) above sea level. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). The most crucial one was the Second Northern War between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that started in 1655. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726. Gvido Pētersons, 29 June 1999. Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia 1562-1795. Photo: Library of Congress. The Latvian Provisional National Council was proclaimed on 16 November 1917. 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