TERJEMAHAN RITUAL ISLAM NOVEL DALAM RIMBA HARAPAN KEPADA BAHASA PERANCIS

(The Translation of Islamic Rituals in the Novel Rimba Harapan into French)

Wan Anis Ilani Wan Kamaruddin

ywk.anisilani@gmail.com

*Haslina Haroon

haslina@superuser93213usm.my

Bahagian Pengajian Terjemahan dan Interpretasi,

Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusiaan,

Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Published online: 5 December 2019

To Cite: Wan Anis Ilani Wan Kamaruddin dan Haslina Haroon. (2019). Terjemahan Ritual Islam dalam Novel Rimba Harapan kepada Bahasa Perancis. Malay Literature, 32(2), 279-310.

Abstrak

Elemen keagamaan merupakan aspek budaya yang sering menimbulkan masalah dalam terjemahan. Hal ini sedemikian kerana elemen keagamaan yang tertentu lazimnya hanya benar-benar dapat difahami oleh masyarakat yang mengamalkan ajaran agama tersebut. Jika elemen keagamaan tersebut ingin disampaikan kepada kumpulan pembaca yang lain yang mempunyai kepercayaan yang berlainan dan menggunakan bahasa yang berlainan, penterjemah perlu mencari mekanisme yang sesuai untuk menyampaikan maksud elemen keagamaan tersebut. Dengan mengambil kira hal ini, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti cara elemen ritual Islam yang terkandung dalam novel Rimba Harapan diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Perancis. Untuk menjalankan kajian ini, pertama sekali elemen ritual Islam dalam novel ini dikenal pasti. Kemudian, setiap ritual Islam yang dikenal pasti ini dicari padanannya dalam teks terjemahan bahasa Perancis. Seterusnya, data yang dikutip yang terdiri daripada pasangan perkataan bahasa Melayu-bahasa Perancis dianalisis dengan menggunakan kerangka prosedur terjemahan yang dicadangkan oleh Franco Aixelá (1996). Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, terdapat 31 elemen ritual Islam dalam novel bahasa Melayu. Analisis terhadap pasangan perkataan bahasa Melayu-bahasa Perancis menunjukkan bahawa penterjemah menggunakan kedua-dua prosedur pengekalan dan penggantian dalam proses terjemahan. Melalui penggunaan kedua-dua prosedur ini, dapat disimpulkan bahawa penterjemah bukan sahaja cuba untuk mengekalkan keaslian teks sumber, iaitu melalui penggunaan prosedur pengekalan tetapi juga cuba untuk memastikan pembaca sasaran dapat memahami teks terjemahan dengan baik, iaitu melalui penggunaan prosedur penggantian.

Kata kunci: Elemen budaya, ritual keagamaan, Islam, prosedur terjemahan, kesusasteraan Melayu

Abstract

Religious elements are cultural aspects that often pose a problem in translation due to the fact that certain religious elements can only be fully understood by the people who practice the religion. If these religious elements need to be conveyed to a group of readers who have different beliefs and who use a different language, the translator needs to find a suitable mechanism in order to transmit these religious elements to the reader. In view of this, the aim of this study is to determine how Islamic rituals found in the novel Rimba Harapan [Jungle of Hope] are translated into French. To carry out the study, Islamic rituals in the novel were first identified. Each Islamic ritual was then mapped to its equivalent in the French translation. Next, the data collected in the form of Malay–French word pairs was analysed using the framework of translation procedures proposed by Franco Aixelá (1996). The analysis carried out revealed a total of 31 Islamic rituals in the Malay novel. An analysis of the Malay–French word pairs shows that the translator used both techniques—retention and substitution—in the process of translating. Through the use of both techniques, it can be concluded that the translator attempted not only to retain the originality of the source text, specifically through retention, but also to ensure that the target readers are able to fully understand the translation, specifically through substitution.

Keywords: Cultural elements, religious rituals, Islam, translation procedures, Malay literature

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